History of the Leg Laboratory

Ivan Sutherland provides slush funding so Raibert could build first hopping machine.
ARPA decides to fund development of hopping machine.
Planar one-legged machine hops in place, travels at a specified rate, keeps its balance when disturbed, and jumps over small obstacles.
Three-dimensional one-legged machine runs and balances on an open floor. Simulations reveal passively stabilized bounding gait for quadruped-like model.
Quadruped runs with trotting gait using generalization of one-leg algorithms. Data from cat and human found to exhibit symmetries like those used to control running machines.
Planar biped runs with one- and two-legged gaits and changes between gaits.
Planar biped does flips, aerials, and runs at 11.5 mph. Monopod runs using leg with rotary joint and leaf-spring foot.
Quadruped runs with trotting, pacing, and bounding gaits.
Planar biped uses selected footholds and climbs short stairway. Quadruped does rudimentary transitions between running gaits. Reentrant trajectories found for simulated passive dynamic running. Computer simulation shows running in zero-g by bouncing between two floors. Simple physical model of zero-g running demonstrated.
Planar biped jumps through hoop and runs with top speed of 13.1 mph. Simulated planar biped gallops. Hoof added to monopod improves performance of leafspring foot. Three-dimensional biped does simple running.
Planar biped robot walks, gallops, and changes between walking and running. Simulation of passive dynamic running with knees.
Kangaroo-like robot (Uniroo), with articulated leg and tail, takes first steps (hops). Computer simulations of simplified kangaroos and ostriches.
3D biped robot does somersault.
Uniroo runs at 1.8 m/s.
Simulatedquadruped control system adjusts automatically for variations in body mass and leg length.
3D Biped and Uniroo appear with Sean Connery and Wesley Snipes in Rising Sun.
Passive stability achieved for layout somersault in laboratory "doll".
Cockroach simulations runs using kinematic motion data from animal. Stable Groucho running in simulated spherical cockroach (Hexahopper).
Weight-shifting robot rocks with stability.
Spring Turkey, a planar bipedal robot, walks at 0.5 m/s using Series Elastic Actuators and Virtual Model Control.
Planar Quadruped runs with articulated spine.
Agile hexapod simulation walks over rough terrain while balancing a pendulum on its back.
Spring Flamingo, a planar bipedal robot, walks utilizing feet and actuated ankles.

The Leg Laboratory was located at Carnegie-Mellon University from 1980-1986, and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1987-present.

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