History of the Leg Laboratory
- Ivan Sutherland provides slush funding so Raibert could build first hopping machine.
- ARPA decides to fund development of hopping machine.
- Planar one-legged machine hops in place, travels at a specified rate, keeps its balance
when disturbed, and jumps over small obstacles.
- Three-dimensional one-legged machine runs and balances on an open floor. Simulations
reveal passively stabilized bounding gait for quadruped-like model.
- Quadruped runs with trotting gait using generalization of one-leg algorithms. Data from
cat and human found to exhibit symmetries like those used to control running machines.
- Planar biped runs with one- and two-legged gaits and changes between gaits.
- Planar biped does flips, aerials, and runs at 11.5 mph. Monopod runs using leg with
rotary joint and leaf-spring foot.
- Quadruped runs with trotting, pacing, and bounding gaits.
- Planar biped uses selected footholds and climbs short stairway. Quadruped does
rudimentary transitions between running gaits. Reentrant trajectories found for simulated
passive dynamic running. Computer simulation shows running in zero-g by bouncing between
two floors. Simple physical model of zero-g running demonstrated.
- Planar biped jumps through hoop and runs with top speed of 13.1 mph. Simulated planar
biped gallops. Hoof added to monopod improves performance of leafspring foot.
Three-dimensional biped does simple running.
- Planar biped robot walks, gallops, and changes between walking and running. Simulation
of passive dynamic running with knees.
- Kangaroo-like robot (Uniroo), with articulated leg and tail, takes first steps (hops).
Computer simulations of simplified kangaroos and ostriches.
- 3D biped robot does somersault.
- Uniroo runs at 1.8 m/s.
- Simulatedquadruped control system adjusts automatically for variations in body mass and
- 3D Biped and Uniroo appear with Sean Connery and Wesley Snipes in Rising Sun.
- Passive stability achieved for layout somersault in laboratory "doll".
- Cockroach simulations runs using kinematic motion data from animal. Stable Groucho
running in simulated spherical cockroach (Hexahopper).
- Weight-shifting robot rocks with stability.
- Spring Turkey, a planar bipedal robot, walks at 0.5 m/s using Series Elastic Actuators
and Virtual Model Control.
- Planar Quadruped runs with articulated spine.
- Agile hexapod simulation walks over rough terrain while balancing a pendulum on its
- Spring Flamingo, a planar bipedal robot, walks utilizing feet and actuated ankles.
The Leg Laboratory was located at Carnegie-Mellon University from 1980-1986, and at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1987-present.
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