City of Cambridge, Massachusetts

Proportional Representation

Proportional Representation (PR) is the method by which voters under Plan E elect members of the City Council and School Comittee. It ensures minority representation with majority control. Any group of voters that numbers more than one-tenth of the total population can be sure of electing at least one member of a nine-member Council, but a majority group of voters can be sure of electing a majority of the Council.

Proportional Representation requires that the candidates' names be rotated in alphabetical order on the ballot so that each candidate appears in the desirable top-of-the-ballot position on an equal number ballots.

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Last updated on June 22, 1994.
Eric Loeb (, Nancy Cheung (
Intelligent Information Infrastructure Project
Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology